Metal-ion batteries and supercapacitors: uses of polymers conjugated to Pi

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The world wants high energy density, low cost, environmentally friendly and sustainable electrical energy storage systems to tackle future energy storage challenges of portable and flexible advanced electronics (ESS ) motivating research in the journal Royal Society Open Science.

To study: A review of conjugated polymer nanocomposites for metal-ion batteries and supercapacitors. Image Credit: Fishman64 / Shutterstock.com

The ever-increasing demand for energy and the depletion of fossil fuels have underscored the need for energy production from renewable sources. The storage of energy is just as important as the production of energy for industrial progress and human well-being.

Supercapacitors and battery

The main sources of consumer power for portable electronics today are batteries and super capacitors (PCS). The lithium-ion battery (LIB) and the lead-acid battery (LAB) are both fully commercialized. Both of these batteries have their own drawbacks and advantages.

Due to the use of dangerous and banned lead as an electrode material, as well as the lower volumetric energy density of lead acid batteries, they are not a viable option for future sustainable energy management.

(a) Schemes of electropolymerization of poly-PNBTH-Boc from PNBTH-Boc monomer, (b) three-electrode electropolymerization reactor and (c) photo of a poly-PBNTH-Boc film on the ITO electrode [43].

(a) Electropolymerization diagrams of poly-PNBTH-Boc from the PNBTH-Boc monomer, (b) three electrode electropolymerization reactor, and (vs) photo of a poly-PBNTH-Boc film on the ITO electrode [43]. Images reproduced with permission. Image Credit: Uke, S., et al, Royal Society Open Science

In addition, due to their remarkable properties such as low price, relatively high energy density, high specific capacity, high retention capacity and renewal capacity, PCS are also energy storage systems. attractive and mature electrochemicals. Energy density, power density, capacity, cycle life and shelf life are critical criteria for the commercial viability of any electrical power system, and they further contribute to the efficiency of these ESSs.

Organic materials for the manufacture of electrodes

Organic materials have recently received a lot of attention as electrode materials for a variety of energy storage technologies. Organic polymers have remarkable qualities such as ease of synthesis, low production costs, lightness, environmental compatibility, processability and moldability, among others.

The use of conjugated polymers (π-CP) for energy storage applications has skyrocketed among various organic polymers. Interestingly, π-CPs offer a number of qualities that make them attractive for energy storage applications, including good electrical conductivity, cost efficiency, light weight, and environmental friendliness.

There are currently numerous reviews in the literature which illustrate recent advances in organic materials as active electrode materials for energy storage applications. Many of them focus on the application and development of organic materials, metal oxides and carbon-based materials as active electrode materials for energy storage.

Electrochemical performance of the t-CNTs-PA-PE cathode in ZIBs.  (a) CV curves;  (b) GCD curves;  (c) and (d) rate performance;  (e) cyclic performance at 10 A g-1 [47].

Electrochemical performance of t-CNT–PennsylvaniaPE cathode in ZIB. (a) CV curves; (b) GCD curves; (vs) and (D) performance rate; (e) cyclic performance at 10 A g1 [47]. Images reproduced with permission. Image Credit: Uke, S., et al, Royal Society Open Science

Special types of organic materials

In this regard, the study thoroughly examined the special types of organic materials, namely π-CP as an electrode material for versatile ESS, in the current analysis to inform positive advances and innovation. in electrode materials.

We started by providing a quick overview of the different -CPs, as well as their essential intrinsic characteristics relevant to energy storage applications. In addition, research has focused on the synthesis of -CP and recent advances in various synthetic techniques.

Chemical oxidative polymerization is a two-electron exchange technique, which requires the use of an oxidant to oxidize the monomers. Electropolymerization is the second most advantageous synthetic method after oxidative polymerization.

Polymerization takes place on the working electrode when an external voltage is applied. In most cases, the synthesis takes place inside the glove box. Slides coated with ITO or gold coated glass, for example, are used as working electrodes in electropolymerization.

Battery electrodes using conjugated polymer

With the growing environmental issues associated with internal combustion engines, as well as breakthroughs in portable and portable electronic gadgets, electrochemical energy storage batteries are becoming more and more popular.

Low cost, high power density, lightweight, high security, long life and environmentally friendly batteries are in great demand for applications such as electric vehicles (EVs), portable electronics and frequency regulation , among others.

The electroactive organic chemical has several advantages over inorganic compounds, including its lightness and increased safety. In addition, the electroactive organic compound can be produced with the necessary structure and functional group, resulting in more redox-active sites for increased electrolytic ion exchange during charging and discharging.

(a) Schematic of the hydrogel backbone, porous network and PEDOT sheets containing PANI.  (b) SEM micrographs of lyophilized PEDOT / PANI hydrogel at various magnifications.  Rough foil surface highlights the encrustation of PANI particles in each PEDOT foil [13].

(a) Diagram of the hydrogel backbone, porous network and PEDOT sheets containing PANI. (b) SEM micrographs of lyophilized PEDOT / PANI hydrogel at different magnifications. The rough sheet surface highlights the incrustation of PANI particles in each PEDOT sheet. Images reproduced with permission. Image Credit: Uke, S., et al, Royal Society Open Science

In polyvalent ESSs, -CPs, their modifications and composites with nanostructured metal oxides as well as carbon-based materials have indeed been widely used as electrode materials.

CPs are highly valued materials and potential candidates for PCS and MIBs due to their flexibility, low cost, environmentally friendly nature, structural variety, and ease of derivatization due to the nanostructured engineering. Low capacitance, sloping plateau, and poor stability are some of the major disadvantages of using π-CPs as an electrode material in storage devices.

In addition, the breakdown of the π-CPs electrode in the aprotic electrolytes causes a rapid fading of the capacity during the discharge of the battery and the SCP. To date, various solutions to overcome such obstacles have been published in the literature. These include making a salt of -CP using organic carbonyl compounds, constructing covalent π-CP compounds using conductive materials, and using non-covalent techniques to make composites. with nanostructured carbon / metal oxides.

Since the lone pair appears to have high electron mobility, it was found that -CPs, which include lone pairs comprising heteroatoms (such as oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and the like), have conductivity electrical and redox activity, further improving the energy and power density of ESS.

The references

Uke, S., et al. (2021). A review of conjugated polymer nanocomposites for metal-ion batteries and supercapacitors. Posted: October 20, 2021. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsos.210567

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